A recessive X-linked form of muscular dystrophy affecting boys caused by a mutation in the dystrophin gene which codes for a vital muscular protein(dystrophin) that provides structural integrity to the dystroglycan complex of the cell membrane. Muscle degenration occurs and abnormal bone growth and overall skeletal deformaties occurs later on in life. Death eventually results.
Reference: Accessed April 13th 2013. http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Duchenne_muscular_dystrophy
These are a class of lipids containing the organic aliphatic amino alcohol, sphingosine.
Sphingomyelins are phosphorus-containing sphingolipids that are found mostly in nervous tissue. More information can be found at the link referenced below.
Reference: Sphingolipid. Accessed April 13th 2013. http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/559707/sphingolipid
Lipids are fat soluble molecules; a property conveyed by its structure. The most commonly occurring lipids are triglycerides which consist of a glycerol backbone bonded to three fatty acids.
Reference: Transcription and Translation. Accessed April 13th 2013. http:/i.biology.net
Differentiation between Nucleotide and Nucleoside
Discerning between nucleosides and nucleotides may be quite tricky. Hydrolysis of the phosphate group of a nucleotide yields the nucleoside.Nucleotides are the building blocks of amino acids: the link gives a brief overview accompanied by a video illustration.
The central dogma of biology is elaborated in this video. Basically it gives an overview of the way DNA is transcribed in the nucleus into mRNA, which then moves out the nuclear pore, attach to ribsomes and cause amino acid sequencing (translation).
Eicosanoids are derived from omega 3 and 6 fatty acids and are involved in many aspects of inflammation and immunity. There are four types: leukotrienes, prostaglandins, prostacyclins and thromboxanes. This link provides an easy to follow overview of the derivation and function of different eicosanoids.
Phosphodiester bonds join the 5′-hydroxyl group of the deoxypentose of one nucleotide to the 3′-hydroxyl group of the deoxypentose of another nucleotide through a phosphate group.
Reference: Champe, Pamela C. and Richard A. Harvey. 1994. Lippincott’s Illustrated Reviews : Biochemistry. Philadelphia. J.B. Lippincott and Company
As the title suggests an explanation is given for the origin of life and the endosymbiotic theory. Oparin’s (1924) hypothesis alluded to the spontaneous generation of life via chemical and physical processes. In 1953 Miller and Urey performed an experiment to support Oparin’s hypothesis; they formulated organic compounds from water vapour and other gases. In fact , amino acids were formed as a result of natural forces acting on inorganic molecules in the experiment. In the 1960s Lynn Margulis formulated the endosymbiotic theory which postulates that eukaryotic cells arose from symbiotic relationships between prokaryotic cells.